Association

Frequent Itemsets& Association Rules

  • Frequent Itemset
    • Support count: Frequency of an itemset
    • Support: relative frequency of an itemset(wrt. all transactions)
  • Association Rule ­ŁĹőÔćĺ­ŁĹî
    • Support: Support of the itemset ­ŁĹő Ôł¬ ­ŁĹî
    • Confidence: relative frequency of ­ŁĹő Ôł¬ ­ŁĹî wrt. ­ŁĹő
      • ÔÇťIf an itemsetcontains ­ŁĹő, in x% of the cases it also contains ­ŁĹîÔÇŁ
    • Lift: confidence of rule ­ŁĹőÔćĺ­ŁĹîdivided by support of consequent ­ŁĹî
      • >1X and Y are positively correlated
      • <1X and Y are negatively correlated
      • =1X and Y are independent

The Apriori Principle

  • If an itemsetis frequent, then all of its subsets must also be frequent
    • Support of an itemsetnever exceeds the support of its subsets
    • ÔÇťanti-monotoneÔÇŁ property of support
  • Example:
    • 50% of all shopping baskets contain beer
      • Then beer & nachos canÔÇÖt be in more than 50% of all shopping baskets
    • So if any itemset is less frequent than we require, no need to check larger itemsets image.png

Python library for FP-Growth

  • command for installing library orange3-associate
    • pip install orange3-associate
  • online documentation
  • only three simple functions
    • frequent_itemsets()
    • association_rules()
    • rules_stats()

Loading data

In [2]:
import pandas as pd
shopping = pd.read_excel('ShoppingBaskets.xls')
shopping_data = shopping.drop('BasketNo', axis=1)
shopping_data.head()
Out[2]:
ThinkPad X220 Asus EeePC HP Laserjet P2055 2 GB DDR3 RAM 8 GB DDR3 RAM Lenovo Tablet Sleeve Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle HP CE50 Toner LT Laser Maus LT Minimaus
0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0
2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
3 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
4 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0

Frequent Itemsets

In [7]:
from orangecontrib.associate.fpgrowth import *

itemsets = dict(frequent_itemsets(shopping_data.values, 0.20)) # take care to use .values

rows = []
for itemset, support in itemsets.items():
    domain_names= [shopping_data.columns[item_index] for item_index in itemset]
    rows.append((len(itemset), support, domain_names))

item_set_table = pd.DataFrame(rows, columns=["size", "support", "items"])
item_set_table.sort_values('support', ascending = False)
Out[7]:
size support items
1 1 6 [Asus EeePC]
4 1 5 [2 GB DDR3 RAM]
5 2 5 [Asus EeePC, 2 GB DDR3 RAM]
33 1 5 [LT Minimaus]
34 2 4 [Asus EeePC, LT Minimaus]
24 1 4 [LT Laser Maus]
15 3 4 [Asus EeePC, 2 GB DDR3 RAM, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ]
14 2 4 [2 GB DDR3 RAM, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ]
13 2 4 [Asus EeePC, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ]
12 1 4 [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ]
0 1 4 [ThinkPad X220 ]
8 1 4 [Lenovo Tablet Sleeve]
18 2 3 [HP Laserjet P2055, HP CE50 Toner]
36 3 3 [Asus EeePC, 2 GB DDR3 RAM, LT Minimaus]
38 2 3 [LT Minimaus, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ]
39 3 3 [Asus EeePC, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle , LT Minimaus]
40 3 3 [LT Minimaus, 2 GB DDR3 RAM, Netbook-Schutzh├╝l...
35 2 3 [LT Minimaus, 2 GB DDR3 RAM]
41 4 3 [Asus EeePC, 2 GB DDR3 RAM, Netbook-Schutzh├╝ll...
2 1 3 [HP Laserjet P2055]
16 1 3 [HP CE50 Toner]
9 2 3 [ThinkPad X220 , Lenovo Tablet Sleeve]
19 3 2 [ThinkPad X220 , HP Laserjet P2055, HP CE50 To...
31 3 2 [LT Laser Maus, 2 GB DDR3 RAM, Netbook-Schutzh...
3 2 2 [ThinkPad X220 , HP Laserjet P2055]
6 1 2 [8 GB DDR3 RAM]
37 2 2 [LT Minimaus, Lenovo Tablet Sleeve]
7 2 2 [ThinkPad X220 , 8 GB DDR3 RAM]
10 2 2 [HP Laserjet P2055, Lenovo Tablet Sleeve]
11 3 2 [ThinkPad X220 , HP Laserjet P2055, Lenovo Tab...
32 4 2 [LT Laser Maus, Asus EeePC, 2 GB DDR3 RAM, Net...
30 3 2 [LT Laser Maus, Asus EeePC, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ]
20 2 2 [Lenovo Tablet Sleeve, HP CE50 Toner]
29 2 2 [LT Laser Maus, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ]
28 3 2 [LT Laser Maus, Asus EeePC, 2 GB DDR3 RAM]
27 2 2 [LT Laser Maus, 2 GB DDR3 RAM]
26 2 2 [LT Laser Maus, Asus EeePC]
25 2 2 [ThinkPad X220 , LT Laser Maus]
23 4 2 [ThinkPad X220 , HP Laserjet P2055, Lenovo Tab...
22 3 2 [HP Laserjet P2055, Lenovo Tablet Sleeve, HP C...
17 2 2 [ThinkPad X220 , HP CE50 Toner]
21 3 2 [ThinkPad X220 , Lenovo Tablet Sleeve, HP CE50...

Association rules

In [5]:
rules = association_rules(itemsets, 0.70)

rows = []
for premis, conclusion, sup, conf,cov, strength, lift, leverage  in rules_stats(rules, itemsets, len(shopping_data)):
    premis_names = [shopping_data.columns[item_index] for item_index in premis]
    conclusion_names = [shopping_data.columns[item_index] for item_index in conclusion]
    rows.append((premis_names, conclusion_names, sup, conf,cov, strength, lift, leverage))

pd.DataFrame(rows, columns = ['Premis', 'Conclusion', 'Support', 'Confidence', 'Coverage', 'Strength', 'Lift', 'Leverage'])
Out[5]:
Premis Conclusion Support Confidence Coverage Strength Lift Leverage
0 [HP Laserjet P2055, Lenovo Tablet Sleeve, HP C... [ThinkPad X220 ] 2 1.000000 0.2 2.000000 2.500000 0.12
1 [ThinkPad X220 , Lenovo Tablet Sleeve, HP CE50... [HP Laserjet P2055] 2 1.000000 0.2 1.500000 3.333333 0.14
2 [Lenovo Tablet Sleeve, HP CE50 Toner] [ThinkPad X220 , HP Laserjet P2055] 2 1.000000 0.2 1.000000 5.000000 0.16
3 [ThinkPad X220 , HP Laserjet P2055, HP CE50 To... [Lenovo Tablet Sleeve] 2 1.000000 0.2 2.000000 2.500000 0.12
4 [ThinkPad X220 , HP CE50 Toner] [HP Laserjet P2055, Lenovo Tablet Sleeve] 2 1.000000 0.2 1.000000 5.000000 0.16
5 [ThinkPad X220 , HP Laserjet P2055, Lenovo Tab... [HP CE50 Toner] 2 1.000000 0.2 1.500000 3.333333 0.14
6 [HP Laserjet P2055, Lenovo Tablet Sleeve] [ThinkPad X220 , HP CE50 Toner] 2 1.000000 0.2 1.000000 5.000000 0.16
7 [ThinkPad X220 , HP Laserjet P2055] [Lenovo Tablet Sleeve, HP CE50 Toner] 2 1.000000 0.2 1.000000 5.000000 0.16
8 [LT Laser Maus, 2 GB DDR3 RAM, Netbook-Schutzh... [Asus EeePC] 2 1.000000 0.2 3.000000 1.666667 0.08
9 [LT Laser Maus, Asus EeePC, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [2 GB DDR3 RAM] 2 1.000000 0.2 2.500000 2.000000 0.10
10 [LT Laser Maus, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [Asus EeePC, 2 GB DDR3 RAM] 2 1.000000 0.2 2.500000 2.000000 0.10
11 [LT Laser Maus, Asus EeePC, 2 GB DDR3 RAM] [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] 2 1.000000 0.2 2.000000 2.500000 0.12
12 [LT Laser Maus, 2 GB DDR3 RAM] [Asus EeePC, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] 2 1.000000 0.2 2.000000 2.500000 0.12
13 [LT Laser Maus, Asus EeePC] [2 GB DDR3 RAM, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] 2 1.000000 0.2 2.000000 2.500000 0.12
14 [LT Minimaus, 2 GB DDR3 RAM, Netbook-Schutzh├╝l... [Asus EeePC] 3 1.000000 0.3 2.000000 1.666667 0.12
15 [Asus EeePC, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle , LT Minimaus] [2 GB DDR3 RAM] 3 1.000000 0.3 1.666667 2.000000 0.15
16 [LT Minimaus, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [Asus EeePC, 2 GB DDR3 RAM] 3 1.000000 0.3 1.666667 2.000000 0.15
17 [Asus EeePC, 2 GB DDR3 RAM, LT Minimaus] [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] 3 1.000000 0.3 1.333333 2.500000 0.18
18 [LT Minimaus, 2 GB DDR3 RAM] [Asus EeePC, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] 3 1.000000 0.3 1.333333 2.500000 0.18
19 [Asus EeePC, LT Minimaus] [2 GB DDR3 RAM, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] 3 0.750000 0.4 1.000000 1.875000 0.14
20 [Asus EeePC, 2 GB DDR3 RAM, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [LT Minimaus] 3 0.750000 0.4 1.250000 1.500000 0.10
21 [2 GB DDR3 RAM, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [LT Minimaus, Asus EeePC] 3 0.750000 0.4 1.000000 1.875000 0.14
22 [Asus EeePC, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [LT Minimaus, 2 GB DDR3 RAM] 3 0.750000 0.4 0.750000 2.500000 0.18
23 [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [LT Minimaus, 2 GB DDR3 RAM, Asus EeePC] 3 0.750000 0.4 0.750000 2.500000 0.18
24 [HP Laserjet P2055, Lenovo Tablet Sleeve] [ThinkPad X220 ] 2 1.000000 0.2 2.000000 2.500000 0.12
25 [ThinkPad X220 , HP Laserjet P2055] [Lenovo Tablet Sleeve] 2 1.000000 0.2 2.000000 2.500000 0.12
26 [2 GB DDR3 RAM, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [Asus EeePC] 4 1.000000 0.4 1.500000 1.666667 0.16
27 [Asus EeePC, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [2 GB DDR3 RAM] 4 1.000000 0.4 1.250000 2.000000 0.20
28 [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [Asus EeePC, 2 GB DDR3 RAM] 4 1.000000 0.4 1.250000 2.000000 0.20
29 [Asus EeePC, 2 GB DDR3 RAM] [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] 4 0.800000 0.5 0.800000 2.000000 0.20
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
35 [Lenovo Tablet Sleeve, HP CE50 Toner] [HP Laserjet P2055] 2 1.000000 0.2 1.500000 3.333333 0.14
36 [HP Laserjet P2055, Lenovo Tablet Sleeve] [HP CE50 Toner] 2 1.000000 0.2 1.500000 3.333333 0.14
37 [LT Laser Maus, 2 GB DDR3 RAM] [Asus EeePC] 2 1.000000 0.2 3.000000 1.666667 0.08
38 [LT Laser Maus, Asus EeePC] [2 GB DDR3 RAM] 2 1.000000 0.2 2.500000 2.000000 0.10
39 [LT Laser Maus, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [Asus EeePC] 2 1.000000 0.2 3.000000 1.666667 0.08
40 [LT Laser Maus, Asus EeePC] [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] 2 1.000000 0.2 2.000000 2.500000 0.12
41 [LT Laser Maus, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [2 GB DDR3 RAM] 2 1.000000 0.2 2.500000 2.000000 0.10
42 [LT Laser Maus, 2 GB DDR3 RAM] [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] 2 1.000000 0.2 2.000000 2.500000 0.12
43 [LT Minimaus, 2 GB DDR3 RAM] [Asus EeePC] 3 1.000000 0.3 2.000000 1.666667 0.12
44 [Asus EeePC, LT Minimaus] [2 GB DDR3 RAM] 3 0.750000 0.4 1.250000 1.500000 0.10
45 [LT Minimaus, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [Asus EeePC] 3 1.000000 0.3 2.000000 1.666667 0.12
46 [Asus EeePC, LT Minimaus] [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] 3 0.750000 0.4 1.000000 1.875000 0.14
47 [Asus EeePC, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [LT Minimaus] 3 0.750000 0.4 1.250000 1.500000 0.10
48 [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [LT Minimaus, Asus EeePC] 3 0.750000 0.4 1.000000 1.875000 0.14
49 [2 GB DDR3 RAM, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [LT Minimaus] 3 0.750000 0.4 1.250000 1.500000 0.10
50 [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [LT Minimaus, 2 GB DDR3 RAM] 3 0.750000 0.4 0.750000 2.500000 0.18
51 [LT Minimaus, Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [2 GB DDR3 RAM] 3 1.000000 0.3 1.666667 2.000000 0.15
52 [LT Minimaus, 2 GB DDR3 RAM] [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] 3 1.000000 0.3 1.333333 2.500000 0.18
53 [2 GB DDR3 RAM] [Asus EeePC] 5 1.000000 0.5 1.200000 1.666667 0.20
54 [Asus EeePC] [2 GB DDR3 RAM] 5 0.833333 0.6 0.833333 1.666667 0.20
55 [8 GB DDR3 RAM] [ThinkPad X220 ] 2 1.000000 0.2 2.000000 2.500000 0.12
56 [Lenovo Tablet Sleeve] [ThinkPad X220 ] 3 0.750000 0.4 1.000000 1.875000 0.14
57 [ThinkPad X220 ] [Lenovo Tablet Sleeve] 3 0.750000 0.4 1.000000 1.875000 0.14
58 [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [Asus EeePC] 4 1.000000 0.4 1.500000 1.666667 0.16
59 [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [2 GB DDR3 RAM] 4 1.000000 0.4 1.250000 2.000000 0.20
60 [2 GB DDR3 RAM] [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] 4 0.800000 0.5 0.800000 2.000000 0.20
61 [HP CE50 Toner] [HP Laserjet P2055] 3 1.000000 0.3 1.000000 3.333333 0.21
62 [HP Laserjet P2055] [HP CE50 Toner] 3 1.000000 0.3 1.000000 3.333333 0.21
63 [LT Minimaus] [Asus EeePC] 4 0.800000 0.5 1.200000 1.333333 0.10
64 [Netbook-Schutzh├╝lle ] [LT Minimaus] 3 0.750000 0.4 1.250000 1.500000 0.10

65 rows ├Ś 8 columns

Aggregating data in pandas

  • load data
In [8]:
from scipy.io import arff
adult_arff_data, adult_arff_meta = arff.loadarff(open('adult-dataset-tweaked.arff', 'r'))
adult = pd.DataFrame(adult_arff_data)
adult = adult.applymap(lambda x: x.decode('utf8') if hasattr(x, 'decode') else x)
adult.head()
Out[8]:
age workclass fnlwgt education education-num marital-status occupation relationship race sex capital-gain capital-loss hours-per-week native-country class
0 25.0 Private 226802.0 11th 7.0 Never-married Machine-op-inspct Own-child Black X 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States X
1 25.0 Private 226802.0 11th 7.0 Never-married Machine-op-inspct Own-child Black Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States <=50K
2 38.0 Private 89814.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Farming-fishing Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 50.0 United-States <=50K
3 28.0 Local-gov 336951.0 Assoc-acdm 12.0 Married-civ-spouse Protective-serv Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States >50K
4 44.0 Private 160323.0 Some-college 10.0 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Husband Black Male 7688.0 0.0 40.0 United-States >50K
In [11]:
adult_aggregate = adult.copy()
adult_aggregate['education'].replace(['Bachelors','Masters','Assoc-acdm','Prof-school','Assoc-voc', 'Doctorate'], 'Other-Grad', inplace=True)
adult_aggregate.head()
Out[11]:
age workclass fnlwgt education education-num marital-status occupation relationship race sex capital-gain capital-loss hours-per-week native-country class
0 25.0 Private 226802.0 11th 7.0 Never-married Machine-op-inspct Own-child Black X 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States X
1 25.0 Private 226802.0 11th 7.0 Never-married Machine-op-inspct Own-child Black Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States <=50K
2 38.0 Private 89814.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Farming-fishing Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 50.0 United-States <=50K
3 28.0 Local-gov 336951.0 Other-Grad 12.0 Married-civ-spouse Protective-serv Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States >50K
4 44.0 Private 160323.0 Some-college 10.0 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Husband Black Male 7688.0 0.0 40.0 United-States >50K

Aggregation Part 2

In [12]:
#adult_sample_aggregate['native-country'][adult_sample_aggregate['native-country'] != 'United-States'] = 'Non-US'
adult_aggregate.loc[adult_aggregate['native-country'] != 'United-States', 'native-country'] = 'Non-US'
adult_aggregate
Out[12]:
age workclass fnlwgt education education-num marital-status occupation relationship race sex capital-gain capital-loss hours-per-week native-country class
0 25.0 Private 226802.0 11th 7.0 Never-married Machine-op-inspct Own-child Black X 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States X
1 25.0 Private 226802.0 11th 7.0 Never-married Machine-op-inspct Own-child Black Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States <=50K
2 38.0 Private 89814.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Farming-fishing Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 50.0 United-States <=50K
3 28.0 Local-gov 336951.0 Other-Grad 12.0 Married-civ-spouse Protective-serv Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States >50K
4 44.0 Private 160323.0 Some-college 10.0 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Husband Black Male 7688.0 0.0 40.0 United-States >50K
5 18.0 ? 103497.0 Some-college 10.0 Never-married ? Own-child White Female 0.0 0.0 30.0 United-States <=50K
6 34.0 Private 198693.0 10th 6.0 Never-married Other-service Not-in-family White Male 0.0 0.0 30.0 United-States <=50K
7 29.0 ? 227026.0 HS-grad 9.0 Never-married ? Unmarried Black Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States <=50K
8 63.0 Self-emp-not-inc 104626.0 Other-Grad 15.0 Married-civ-spouse Prof-specialty Husband White Male 3103.0 0.0 32.0 United-States >50K
9 24.0 Private 369667.0 Some-college 10.0 Never-married Other-service Unmarried White Female 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States <=50K
10 55.0 Private 104996.0 7th-8th 4.0 Married-civ-spouse Craft-repair Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 10.0 United-States <=50K
11 65.0 Private 184454.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Husband White Male 6418.0 0.0 40.0 United-States >50K
12 36.0 Federal-gov 212465.0 Other-Grad 13.0 Married-civ-spouse Adm-clerical Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States <=50K
13 26.0 Private 82091.0 HS-grad 9.0 Never-married Adm-clerical Not-in-family White Female 0.0 0.0 39.0 United-States <=50K
14 58.0 ? 299831.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse ? Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 35.0 United-States <=50K
15 48.0 Private 279724.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Husband White Male 3103.0 0.0 48.0 United-States >50K
16 43.0 Private 346189.0 Other-Grad 14.0 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 50.0 United-States >50K
17 20.0 State-gov 444554.0 Some-college 10.0 Never-married Other-service Own-child White Male 0.0 0.0 25.0 United-States <=50K
18 43.0 Private 128354.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Adm-clerical Wife White Female 0.0 0.0 30.0 United-States <=50K
19 37.0 Private 60548.0 HS-grad 9.0 Widowed Machine-op-inspct Unmarried White Female 0.0 0.0 20.0 United-States <=50K
20 40.0 Private 85019.0 Other-Grad 16.0 Married-civ-spouse Prof-specialty Husband Asian-Pac-Islander Male 0.0 0.0 45.0 Non-US >50K
21 34.0 Private 107914.0 Other-Grad 13.0 Married-civ-spouse Tech-support Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 47.0 United-States >50K
22 34.0 Private 238588.0 Some-college 10.0 Never-married Other-service Own-child Black Female 0.0 0.0 35.0 United-States <=50K
23 72.0 ? 132015.0 7th-8th 4.0 Divorced ? Not-in-family White Female 0.0 0.0 6.0 United-States <=50K
24 25.0 Private 220931.0 Other-Grad 13.0 Never-married Prof-specialty Not-in-family White Male 0.0 0.0 43.0 Non-US <=50K
25 25.0 Private 205947.0 Other-Grad 13.0 Married-civ-spouse Prof-specialty Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States <=50K
26 45.0 Self-emp-not-inc 432824.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Craft-repair Husband White Male 7298.0 0.0 90.0 United-States >50K
27 22.0 Private 236427.0 HS-grad 9.0 Never-married Adm-clerical Own-child White Male 0.0 0.0 20.0 United-States <=50K
28 23.0 Private 134446.0 HS-grad 9.0 Separated Machine-op-inspct Unmarried Black Male 0.0 0.0 54.0 United-States <=50K
29 54.0 Private 99516.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Craft-repair Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 35.0 United-States <=50K
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
48813 30.0 ? 33811.0 Other-Grad 13.0 Never-married ? Not-in-family Asian-Pac-Islander Female 0.0 0.0 99.0 United-States <=50K
48814 34.0 Private 204461.0 Other-Grad 16.0 Married-civ-spouse Prof-specialty Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 60.0 United-States >50K
48815 54.0 Private 337992.0 Other-Grad 13.0 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Husband Asian-Pac-Islander Male 0.0 0.0 50.0 Non-US >50K
48816 37.0 Private 179137.0 Some-college 10.0 Divorced Adm-clerical Unmarried White Female 0.0 0.0 39.0 United-States <=50K
48817 22.0 Private 325033.0 12th 8.0 Never-married Protective-serv Own-child Black Male 0.0 0.0 35.0 United-States <=50K
48818 34.0 Private 160216.0 Other-Grad 13.0 Never-married Exec-managerial Not-in-family White Female 0.0 0.0 55.0 United-States >50K
48819 30.0 Private 345898.0 HS-grad 9.0 Never-married Craft-repair Not-in-family Black Male 0.0 0.0 46.0 United-States <=50K
48820 38.0 Private 139180.0 Other-Grad 13.0 Divorced Prof-specialty Unmarried Black Female 15020.0 0.0 45.0 United-States >50K
48821 71.0 ? 287372.0 Other-Grad 16.0 Married-civ-spouse ? Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 10.0 United-States >50K
48822 45.0 State-gov 252208.0 HS-grad 9.0 Separated Adm-clerical Own-child White Female 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States <=50K
48823 41.0 ? 202822.0 HS-grad 9.0 Separated ? Not-in-family Black Female 0.0 0.0 32.0 United-States <=50K
48824 72.0 ? 129912.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse ? Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 25.0 United-States <=50K
48825 45.0 Local-gov 119199.0 Other-Grad 12.0 Divorced Prof-specialty Unmarried White Female 0.0 0.0 48.0 United-States <=50K
48826 31.0 Private 199655.0 Other-Grad 14.0 Divorced Other-service Not-in-family Other Female 0.0 0.0 30.0 United-States <=50K
48827 39.0 Local-gov 111499.0 Other-Grad 12.0 Married-civ-spouse Adm-clerical Wife White Female 0.0 0.0 20.0 United-States >50K
48828 37.0 Private 198216.0 Other-Grad 12.0 Divorced Tech-support Not-in-family White Female 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States <=50K
48829 43.0 Private 260761.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 Non-US <=50K
48830 65.0 Self-emp-not-inc 99359.0 Other-Grad 15.0 Never-married Prof-specialty Not-in-family White Male 1086.0 0.0 60.0 United-States <=50K
48831 43.0 State-gov 255835.0 Some-college 10.0 Divorced Adm-clerical Other-relative White Female 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States <=50K
48832 43.0 Self-emp-not-inc 27242.0 Some-college 10.0 Married-civ-spouse Craft-repair Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 50.0 United-States <=50K
48833 32.0 Private 34066.0 10th 6.0 Married-civ-spouse Handlers-cleaners Husband Amer-Indian-Eskimo Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States <=50K
48834 43.0 Private 84661.0 Other-Grad 11.0 Married-civ-spouse Sales Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 45.0 United-States <=50K
48835 32.0 Private 116138.0 Other-Grad 14.0 Never-married Tech-support Not-in-family Asian-Pac-Islander Male 0.0 0.0 11.0 Non-US <=50K
48836 53.0 Private 321865.0 Other-Grad 14.0 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States >50K
48837 22.0 Private 310152.0 Some-college 10.0 Never-married Protective-serv Not-in-family White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States <=50K
48838 27.0 Private 257302.0 Other-Grad 12.0 Married-civ-spouse Tech-support Wife White Female 0.0 0.0 38.0 United-States <=50K
48839 40.0 Private 154374.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States >50K
48840 58.0 Private 151910.0 HS-grad 9.0 Widowed Adm-clerical Unmarried White Female 0.0 0.0 40.0 United-States <=50K
48841 22.0 Private 201490.0 HS-grad 9.0 Never-married Adm-clerical Own-child White Male 0.0 0.0 20.0 United-States <=50K
48842 52.0 Self-emp-inc 287927.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Wife White Female 15024.0 0.0 40.0 United-States >50K

48843 rows ├Ś 15 columns

Selecting data in pandas

In [14]:
adult_immigrants = adult[adult['native-country'] != 'United-States']
adult_immigrants
Out[14]:
age workclass fnlwgt education education-num marital-status occupation relationship race sex capital-gain capital-loss hours-per-week native-country class
20 40.0 Private 85019.0 Doctorate 16.0 Married-civ-spouse Prof-specialty Husband Asian-Pac-Islander Male 0.0 0.0 45.0 ? >50K
24 25.0 Private 220931.0 Bachelors 13.0 Never-married Prof-specialty Not-in-family White Male 0.0 0.0 43.0 Peru <=50K
38 22.0 Private 248446.0 5th-6th 3.0 Never-married Priv-house-serv Not-in-family White Male 0.0 0.0 50.0 Guatemala <=50K
47 39.0 Private 290208.0 7th-8th 4.0 Married-civ-spouse Craft-repair Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 Mexico <=50K
55 38.0 Private 219446.0 9th 5.0 Married-spouse-absent Exec-managerial Not-in-family White Male 0.0 0.0 54.0 Mexico <=50K
66 41.0 Private 109912.0 Bachelors 13.0 Never-married Other-service Not-in-family White Female 0.0 0.0 40.0 ? <=50K
73 30.0 Private 229636.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 Mexico <=50K
75 46.0 Private 269034.0 Some-college 10.0 Married-civ-spouse Craft-repair Husband Other Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 Dominican-Republic <=50K
84 44.0 Self-emp-inc 223881.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Craft-repair Husband White Male 99999.0 0.0 50.0 ? >50K
129 27.0 Self-emp-not-inc 115438.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Craft-repair Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 60.0 Ireland >50K
142 18.0 Private 262118.0 Some-college 10.0 Never-married Adm-clerical Own-child Asian-Pac-Islander Female 0.0 0.0 22.0 Germany <=50K
189 34.0 State-gov 513100.0 Bachelors 13.0 Married-spouse-absent Farming-fishing Not-in-family Black Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 ? <=50K
218 21.0 Private 447488.0 5th-6th 3.0 Never-married Machine-op-inspct Other-relative White Male 0.0 0.0 38.0 Mexico <=50K
221 34.0 Private 162312.0 Bachelors 13.0 Married-civ-spouse Adm-clerical Husband Asian-Pac-Islander Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 Philippines <=50K
222 25.0 Private 77698.0 HS-grad 9.0 Never-married Machine-op-inspct Not-in-family Asian-Pac-Islander Female 0.0 0.0 40.0 Philippines <=50K
233 55.0 Private 119751.0 Masters 14.0 Never-married Exec-managerial Unmarried Asian-Pac-Islander Female 0.0 0.0 50.0 Thailand <=50K
238 42.0 Private 227968.0 HS-grad 9.0 Never-married Other-service Unmarried Black Female 0.0 0.0 28.0 Haiti <=50K
254 42.0 Federal-gov 177937.0 Bachelors 13.0 Never-married Prof-specialty Not-in-family White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 ? <=50K
297 30.0 Private 236543.0 9th 5.0 Married-civ-spouse Other-service Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 32.0 El-Salvador >50K
302 30.0 Private 169269.0 11th 7.0 Never-married Handlers-cleaners Other-relative White Male 0.0 1721.0 38.0 Puerto-Rico <=50K
306 37.0 Local-gov 263690.0 Bachelors 13.0 Never-married Prof-specialty Unmarried Black Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 ? <=50K
310 51.0 Self-emp-not-inc 136708.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Sales Husband Asian-Pac-Islander Male 3103.0 0.0 84.0 Vietnam <=50K
324 52.0 Private 55608.0 1st-4th 2.0 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 Mexico <=50K
325 26.0 Private 248057.0 HS-grad 9.0 Separated Handlers-cleaners Own-child White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 Puerto-Rico <=50K
330 64.0 Self-emp-not-inc 71807.0 Doctorate 16.0 Married-civ-spouse Prof-specialty Husband White Male 15024.0 0.0 50.0 ? >50K
337 44.0 Private 196234.0 9th 5.0 Divorced Other-service Unmarried White Female 0.0 0.0 55.0 Dominican-Republic <=50K
343 31.0 Private 179415.0 5th-6th 3.0 Married-civ-spouse Other-service Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 Mexico <=50K
351 45.0 ? 319993.0 HS-grad 9.0 Widowed ? Unmarried White Female 0.0 0.0 40.0 Mexico <=50K
370 26.0 Private 190873.0 10th 6.0 Divorced Other-service Unmarried White Female 0.0 0.0 40.0 Germany <=50K
372 41.0 Private 203217.0 7th-8th 4.0 Separated Craft-repair Not-in-family White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 Mexico <=50K
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
48594 34.0 Private 346034.0 12th 8.0 Married-spouse-absent Handlers-cleaners Unmarried White Male 0.0 0.0 35.0 Mexico <=50K
48595 41.0 Private 144460.0 Some-college 10.0 Divorced Machine-op-inspct Own-child White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 Italy <=50K
48602 37.0 Private 328466.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Craft-repair Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 72.0 Mexico <=50K
48609 28.0 Private 330466.0 Bachelors 13.0 Never-married Prof-specialty Not-in-family Asian-Pac-Islander Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 Hong <=50K
48614 26.0 Private 233777.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Craft-repair Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 72.0 Mexico <=50K
48616 24.0 Private 176580.0 5th-6th 3.0 Married-spouse-absent Farming-fishing Not-in-family White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 Mexico <=50K
48619 23.0 Private 194951.0 Bachelors 13.0 Never-married Prof-specialty Not-in-family Asian-Pac-Islander Male 0.0 0.0 55.0 Ireland <=50K
48623 74.0 Self-emp-not-inc 199136.0 Bachelors 13.0 Widowed Craft-repair Not-in-family White Male 15831.0 0.0 8.0 Germany >50K
48634 28.0 Private 119793.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Craft-repair Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 Portugal <=50K
48641 46.0 Private 139514.0 Preschool 1.0 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Other-relative Black Male 0.0 0.0 75.0 Dominican-Republic <=50K
48652 53.0 Self-emp-not-inc 137547.0 Prof-school 15.0 Never-married Prof-specialty Not-in-family Asian-Pac-Islander Male 27828.0 0.0 40.0 Philippines >50K
48653 49.0 Self-emp-not-inc 111959.0 Bachelors 13.0 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 60.0 Scotland >50K
48658 40.0 Private 306225.0 HS-grad 9.0 Divorced Craft-repair Not-in-family Asian-Pac-Islander Female 0.0 0.0 40.0 Japan <=50K
48660 39.0 Private 214896.0 HS-grad 9.0 Separated Other-service Not-in-family White Female 0.0 0.0 40.0 El-Salvador <=50K
48685 48.0 Private 325372.0 1st-4th 2.0 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 Portugal <=50K
48695 45.0 Private 199590.0 5th-6th 3.0 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 ? <=50K
48707 23.0 Private 180771.0 1st-4th 2.0 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Wife Amer-Indian-Eskimo Female 0.0 0.0 35.0 Mexico <=50K
48710 39.0 Federal-gov 110622.0 Bachelors 13.0 Married-civ-spouse Adm-clerical Wife Asian-Pac-Islander Female 0.0 0.0 40.0 Philippines <=50K
48714 36.0 Private 208068.0 Preschool 1.0 Divorced Other-service Not-in-family Other Male 0.0 0.0 72.0 Mexico <=50K
48731 44.0 Self-emp-inc 71556.0 Masters 14.0 Married-civ-spouse Sales Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 50.0 ? >50K
48738 30.0 Self-emp-not-inc 261943.0 11th 7.0 Married-spouse-absent Craft-repair Not-in-family White Male 0.0 0.0 30.0 Honduras <=50K
48741 85.0 Private 98611.0 Bachelors 13.0 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 3.0 Poland <=50K
48751 58.0 Self-emp-inc 181974.0 Doctorate 16.0 Never-married Prof-specialty Not-in-family White Female 0.0 0.0 99.0 ? <=50K
48774 42.0 Self-emp-not-inc 217597.0 HS-grad 9.0 Divorced Sales Own-child White Male 0.0 0.0 50.0 ? <=50K
48790 45.0 Private 155093.0 10th 6.0 Divorced Other-service Not-in-family Black Female 0.0 0.0 38.0 Dominican-Republic <=50K
48792 39.0 Private 107302.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Prof-specialty Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 45.0 ? >50K
48807 81.0 ? 120478.0 Assoc-voc 11.0 Divorced ? Unmarried White Female 0.0 0.0 1.0 ? <=50K
48815 54.0 Private 337992.0 Bachelors 13.0 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Husband Asian-Pac-Islander Male 0.0 0.0 50.0 Japan >50K
48829 43.0 Private 260761.0 HS-grad 9.0 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Husband White Male 0.0 0.0 40.0 Mexico <=50K
48835 32.0 Private 116138.0 Masters 14.0 Never-married Tech-support Not-in-family Asian-Pac-Islander Male 0.0 0.0 11.0 Taiwan <=50K

5010 rows ├Ś 15 columns